- Look closely at the states that ratified the amendment (in 1920 there were only 48 states that made up the U.S.). What states didn't ratify the amendment? Discuss possible reasons why those 12 states didn't help to ratify the amendment.
- Compare this document to President Woodrow Wilson's letter to Carrie Chapman Catt. How was President Wilson's sentiment expressed in the amendment?
- Governor William Harding ratified the amendment on July 2, 1919, making Iowa the 10th state to do so. Refer to different view points in the Votes for Women! The Woman's Reason and the anti-suffrage ad from The Iowa Homestead. How might these and other opinions have influenced Governor Harding's decision to ratify the amendment for Iowa?
"19th Amendment to the Constitution," U.S. Congress, 26 August 1920. Courtesy of Library of Congress